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Zaodaguo cherry in greenhouse cultivation technique for high yield
Time:2017-06-15 15:37:50   Author:   Visits:

Cherry zaodaguo in recent years is introduced from Ukraine to China's promising sweet cherry, which is characterized by early fruit yield, cold resistance, large size, average fruit weight 13g, fruit heart type, fruit red, sugar content of 15% ~ 20%, no cracking, storage and transportation. In order to investigate zaodaguo cherry in greenhouse cultivation techniques, we from 2001 to 2005 in Shandong city of Laiwu Province agricultural demonstration garden was the core of the test, and achieved good results, which are summarized as follows.

1 test overview

The core test in Shandong demonstration park area in Shandong province by Laiwu Institute of Agricultural Sciences, the annual average temperature of 12.5 degrees, in January the average temperature -2.8, annual precipitation is 760mm, frost free period 230d, the average effective accumulated temperature of 4264.5 degrees Celsius, the average annual sunshine hours for 2629.2h. The soil is brown earth, the soil layer is deep, the organic matter content is 1.05%, the soil is PH6.5 ~ 7, and the drainage is good. 2001 spring garden, each cultivar zaodaguo shed for 88 strains, pollination varieties for the pioneer, Rene 22 in total, the proportion is 8:1:1, the Laiyang dwarf cherry rootstock seedlings were anvil, 2 year old seedlings. Third, fourth, fifth years after planting, that is, in 2003, 2004 and 2005, each 667m2 yield reached 700kg, 1350kg and 1700kg, respectively. Every year in mid April, the fruit was ripe, the price was high, and the benefits were good.

The test for the greenhouse as things to the circular arch steel structure. The greenhouse is 85m long, 9m wide, 1.5m high front, after a rise of 3.5m, the 2.5m of the wall, the wall thickness is 1m, clay brick mixed structure, there are 16 60cm square window ventilation wall distance 1.5m, covers an area of 765m2 film for greenhouse, no drip polyethylene film covering Caoshan insulation, roof there are automatic rolling equipment, a heating lamp, lighting and drip irrigation equipment.

2 main cultivation techniques

2.1: 2001 spring planting, planting spacing is 2m * 3M, before planting dig 1m wide and 0.8m deep ditch, ditch every 667m2 1000kg the broken grass and crop straw and chicken manure 2500kg, and the proper amount of compound fertilizer, manure and soil mixing, fill in the trench, heavy watering. 3~5 days later, the seedlings will be planted according to the row spacing and planted in the middle part of the ditch. Seedlings should be properly planted, so that roots below the ground about 15cm, and immediately irrigation. With each hoeing, gradually buried until July, before the rainy season, soil buried flush with the ground, so that the rootstock rootstock rooting period, expand the absorption area, enhance the tree lodging resistance.

2.2 soil, fertilizer and water management: cherry trees are shallow root fruit trees, most of the roots are distributed on the surface of the soil, and the soil conditions are more stringent. In the process of soil management, it is necessary to expand the hole, dig deep, and cultivate the soil. In order to ensure the nutritional requirements of trees, 3 topdressing treatments were carried out in 5 and June in the first 2 years, and urea 50g was applied in early May, and DAP 100g was applied in early June, and the special fertilizer 500g was applied in late June. From the beginning of May 10th every 10 days sprayed 1 times 0.3% urea +0.3% potassium dihydrogen phosphate +0.2% PMF, even 5 to 6 times. Generally, the leaves are combined with deep turning and expanding holes in 9~10 months, and each plant is used to produce high-quality chicken manure 15 ~ 20kg, urea 200g and potassium sulphate compound fertilizer 500g. Third years later, 1 ~ 2 times 0.5%, 0.5% urea, 0.2% potassium dihydrogen phosphate liquid borax in early flowering and flowering of foliar every year after anthesis; Sportak fruit fertilizer with phosphorus and potassium fertilizer, and foliar spray 1 times every 15 days 0.3% +0.2% potassium dihydrogen phosphate urea +0.5% photosynthetic fertilizer mixture, and base fertilizer and topdressing amount with the yield increase. The trees required to maintain a robust, stable yield. General watering combined with dressing, grasp the "less water wash poured, a small number of times, the soil moist air drying" principle, can be divided into annual irrigation water, water, I urge fruit postharvest water, freezing water, and in mid November after the Black Plastic Mulching Winter pruning.

2.3 pruning techniques: greenhouse cultivation of cherry zaodaguo, generally north part by slender spindle, south part of the plexiform shape. The pruning time is mainly the summer pruning after harvest, and Xia Dongjian combines. Pruning method to sparse shear based, sparse shrink shear combination, avoid short cuts too much, too heavy pruning, crown closure. The number of sticks per 667m2 should be 80 thousand, and the proportion of middle and short branches should be 80%. Planting in spring was dry, dry height 30 ~ 60cm, South low, north high, forming a certain height difference. The shoot length is 30 ~ 40cm for 15 ~ 20cm of the central leadership, topping, the length to 60cm, with 40cm topping, promoting cultivation of branches, second layer uniaxial extension branch. In late 9, the branches stopped growing and the branches were pulled. The angle was 80 degrees. Second years to continue pinching and bending, Paclobutrazol at the same time in mid May and mid June by spraying 1 times 300 to 500 times of the control, the growth of new shoots, which can form a large number of flower bud. Cherry zaodaguo strong apical dominance, winter pruning, cut to light slow release stay branch. Avoid short cuts, too much pruning, resulting in dense canopy. Koupeng, when the shoots grow to 15 ~ 20cm, timely topping, prevent new shoots excess of light.

2.4 temperature and humidity control: Cherry zaodaguo demand for low temperature below 7.2 DEG 1400h (hours), so koupeng time should be in the middle of December, the film cover curtain, curtain cooling window at night around 20d, in mid January, gradually warming up. The heating is divided into three stages, the first stage of the 10 day, the day opened 1/3 Caolian, temperature control at 8 to 15 DEG C, the night of 3 to 5 DEG C, relative humidity of 80%; 7 days of the second stage, the day opened 2/3 Caolian, maintained at a temperature of 10 ~ 18 DEG C, the night of 4 to 6 DEG C, relative humidity 80% the left and right; third stage 12 ~ 15 days, the day all the screen up, the temperature is maintained at 12 to 20 DEG C, the night of 6 to 7 DEG C, relative humidity 70%. At daytime temperature of 20 ~ 22 DEG C, the maximum does not exceed 25 degrees, the night of 7 to 8 DEG C, zaodaguo cherry flowering on the air humidity is relatively strict, high humidity, pollen is not easy to radiate and susceptible flower rot; humidity is too low, the stigma is not conducive to drying, fertilization, air relative humidity is 50%. During the fruit expansion period, the temperature was 22~25 in the daytime and 10~12 in the night. The air humidity should be 60%. When the fruit was colored to harvest, the temperature was 22~25, the temperature was 12~15 at night, the temperature difference between 10 and 50% was day by day, and the relative humidity of air was two.

The relative temperature between the ground temperature and the air temperature in the greenhouse should be relatively balanced, that is, the average temperature in one day is the suitable ground temperature. It is generally believed that the suitable temperature for the growth and development of cherries is about 20 degrees celsius. The humidity in greenhouse mainly includes soil humidity and air humidity. As the greenhouse in most of the time closed, prone to excessive humidity in the air. Soil moisture and air humidity influence each other. Soil humidity is high, air humidity is also high. From mulching to harvesting, the relative humidity of soil should be 60% ~ 80%. Early to early germination requirements before 80% is appropriate; the germination period of 20 ~ 40cm soil moisture in the soil with a group, a touch of powder; after flowering, soil relative humidity of 60% ~ 70%.

In addition to pay attention to the control of temperature and humidity in the correct way to shed water, controlling the amount of water, mainly through the straw cover, opening and closing doors and windows for ventilation. Greenhouse temperature and humidity control is a key link in protected cultivation, to observe the change of the person responsible for the timing, for the record.

2.5: cherry fruit management zaodaguo self pollinated fruit setting rate is low, in addition to the configuration of the corresponding pollination tree, should take the following measures: during 3 to 5 days each shed put a case of bees for pollination; varieties of flower like flowers, the pollination tree spent a brush or rubber point grant, 2 ~ 3 times; flowering before and after spraying 10 days apart spray once 0.3% urea and 0.3% borax or flowering 600 times or potassium dihydrogen phosphate solution, flowering spraying 50mg/L gibberellin or 300 times of rare earth fertilizer could significantly increase the fruit setting rate. Fruits and vegetables leave 2~3 fruits per inflorescence. At the same time to fill and supplement of CO2, fruit every day use fluorescent light for 1 hours, 2 hours a day after fruit set fill; morning after sunrise, according to dilute sulfuric acid and ammonium hydrogen carbonate reaction to generate the CO2 principle, the general generator is reaction, the increase of CO2 concentration in greenhouse. In addition, the ammonia calcium Po fruit enlargement period of 2 ~ 3 amino acid calcium spray 200 times or 400 ~ 500 times, can increase the fruit, increased fruit brightness, hardness and surface wax. When the fruit begins to color, the measures of picking leaves and laying silver reflecting film are helpful to improve the illumination condition and improve the color degree.

2.6 pest control: zaodaguo cherry are cultivated, pests and diseases is relatively light. General koupeng immediately after injection 1 times 3 Be ~ 5 Be LSSS, can kill a variety of overwintering eggs and bacteria; young fruit spray 1 times 1000 times 70% thiophanate methyl; after harvest spraying 1 times 500 to 600 times 700 times 50% or 70% mancozeb and carbendazim; from 7 to August spraying 2 times 200 to 240 times the amount of Bordeaux mixture control perforation disease, leaf spot and stem rot; if gummosis, early onset in the lesion longitudinal cutting knife, squeeze juice, brushing shiliuheji liquid. Caterpillar, slug pests in 1 ~ 2 instar larvae of spraying 20% fenvalerate 1500 ~ 2000 times liquid; red spider mite net available 20% dead 2000 times liquid control.